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Liquid Source Vaporization in Semiconductor Manufacturing

Liquid Source Vaporization in Semiconductor ManufacturingMicroelectronics are everywhere – from the cars we drive, to the phones we use, to the computers we work with. Advancements in semiconductor manufacturing drive performance improvements in microelectronics – producing safer cars with sophisticated sensor networks, more functional cell phones, and faster, lighter computers. These advanced semiconductor manufacturing processes produce state-of-the art logic and memory devices that help us be more effective in our everyday life, drive efficiencies, and lay the foundation for more innovation. They are the framework for safer systems: from smart automobiles to smart factories to smart homes.

Semiconductor device fabrication requires hundreds of process steps and requires multiple nanometer- to micron-thick thin films that are deposited and then partially stripped away to leave extremely complex 3D structures. Vaporizers are a critical component in semiconductor fabrication. CVD (Chemical Vapor Deposition) and ALD (Atomic Layer Deposition) are two widely used methods to create thin films. CVD and ALD are gas phase processes. When CVD or ALD chemistry requires the use of a material that is typically in liquid form, a vaporizer is used to phase-change the liquid into a gas. CVD/ALD thin film deposition, doped-epitaxial growth, and metal etch often require a vapor with extremely stable concentration and stable chemical stoichiometry.

MSP, a Division of TSI, provides leading technology tools to vaporize liquid precursors for thin film deposition or other processes. We are a leader in the semiconductor liquid source vaporization market, providing higher quality vapors which can lead to greater throughput, and higher yield by providing improved thin films, wider process windows, higher achievable vapor concentrations, less risk of thermal decontamination, and decreased downtime.

Processes which require liquid turned to vapor cover an extremely wide spectrum of process conditions. Several important process parameters that affect vaporization include:

  • Liquid type and flow rate
  • Carrier gas type and flow rate
  • Process pressure and temperature
  • Ambient pressure and temperature
  • Distance between vaporizer and process zone

MSP offers the widest range of standard vaporizer solutions commercially available. Every year our MSP vaporization experts continue to innovate and drive vaporization technology to new heights to meet the demands of progressively challenging process requirements. With 40+ active design patents, MSP continues to be a leader in vapor delivery solutions.

MSP provides three key components of a vaporization system: vaporizers, vapor filters, and liquid flow controllers.

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MSP's exclusive technology offers a broad range of advantages over older, more conventional techniques. Our Turbo-Vaporizers apply advanced technology in aerosol science and thermo-dynamics to create a more refined solution to vaporization.

In thin film applications, the stable and uniform vapor leads to a higher quality thin film and higher wafer yields. The precision and control of MSP vaporizers make it possible to vaporize difficult precursors, which were not usable before, opening up new areas for process development. The ability to generate higher vapor concentrations with less maintenance than conventional techniques provides higher deposition rates and lower downtime.

MSP provides nine direct liquid injection vaporizer options to meet varying applications. The vaporizers are ideal for process that require a high quality, stable vapor. A few applications include:

  • Semiconductor Microelectronics
  • LEDs Optoelectronics
  • Protective Coatings
  • Nanoparticle Synthesis
  • Energy Production/Storage
  • Powder/Fiber Processing
  • Solar Photovoltaics
  • Medical Device
  • Bio Assays


In microelectronics, unwanted particles can mean low yield and field failure. As semiconductor manufacturing nodes get smaller and smaller, ‘killer’ particles (particles that can disrupt the current and therefore ruin the semiconductor) are in the nanometer size range. Best practice is to use a filter downstream of vapor and gas sources for risk mitigation. MSP’s patent-protected VPG™ Vapor Process Gas filters provide ultra-high efficiency in the nanometer size range while also creating minimal pressure drop. These 100% Stainless Steel filters are thermally and chemically resistant.

Liquid Flow Controllers

MSP’s Turbo-Vaporizer™ Vapor Deliver Solutions use a direct liquid injection technique and require precise control of the liquid flow rate entering the vaporizer. A fast response liquid flow controller that can tightly control flow-rates is needed for most microelectronic and thin film applications. Our PE vaporizers use a precision Piezo-valve to control the rate of liquid flow to the vaporizer, significantly reducing dead volume and improving response time. MSP’s versatile Liquid Flow Controller can be used to control the on-board Piezo valve in PE vaporizers. It can be used to maintain a highly stable liquid flow, or generate repeatable short duration vapor pulses for ALD and short pulse CVD applications.