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Liquid Source Vaporization for Industrial Thin Films

Liquid Source Vaporization for Industrial Thin FilmsThin film deposition techniques like CVD (Chemical Vapor Deposition) are often used to create protective coatings for industrial applications. Silicon Carbide is widely used in industrial thin film applications due to its strength, thermal resistance, corrosion resistance, and lubricity. Silicon Carbide prevents mechanical fatigue, moisture absorption, and deterioration caused by space radiation.

Vaporizers (also known as liquid source bubblers and CVD bubblers) are a critical component in many industrial thin film deposition processes, including CVD which is a gas phase process. Silicon Carbide is frequently manufactured using a CVD process and a liquid precursor. Creating Silicon Carbide vapor involves the reaction of volatile compounds containing carbon and silica at high temperatures in the presence of hydrogen. When CVD chemistry requires a typically-liquid material, a vaporizer is used to phase-change the liquid into a gas. 

Industrial vaporization applications frequently require higher vapor concentrations. The vaporizers also need to run for longer periods of time without maintenance or downtime. MSP’s market-proven Turbo-Vaporizers use a direct liquid injection technique that provides higher vapor concentration potential, extremely stable concentration output, and longer Mean Time Between Repair (MTBR).

A few examples of industrial thin film applications include:

  • Long lifetime, inert coatings on wafer handling equipment
  • Hard coatings on machine tools and aircraft parts, which need to last through extreme conditions with very low wear
  • Furnace and kiln linings
  • Wear-resistant coatings used in the automotive parts industry

MSP, a Division of TSI, provides leading technology tools to vaporize liquid precursors for industrial thin film deposition. We are a leader in the liquid source vaporization market. Our higher quality vapors can lead to greater throughput and higher yield by providing improved thin films, wider process windows, higher achievable vapor concentrations, less risk of thermal decontamination, and decreased downtime.

Processes which require vapor created from a liquid span an extremely wide spectrum of process conditions. Several important process parameters that affect vaporization include:

  • Liquid type and flow rate
  • Carrier gas type and flow rate
  • Process pressure and temperature
  • Ambient pressure and temperature
  • Distance between vaporizer and process zone

MSP offers the widest range of standard vaporizer solutions commercially available. Every year our MSP vaporization experts continue to innovate and drive vaporization technology to new heights to meet the demands of progressively challenging process requirements. With 40+ active designs patents, MSP continues to be a leader in vapor delivery solutions.

MSP provides three key components of a vaporization system: vaporizers, vapor filters, and liquid flow controllers. We do not provide fully assembled CVD equipment/machines.

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MSP's exclusive technology offers a broad range of advantages over older, more conventional techniques. Our Turbo-Vaporizers apply advanced technology in aerosol science and thermo-dynamics to create a more refined solution to vaporization.

In thin film applications, the stable and uniform vapor leads to a higher quality thin film. The precision and control of MSP liquid source bubblers make it possible to vaporize difficult precursors, which were not usable before, opening up new areas for process development. The ability to generate higher vapor concentrations with less maintenance than conventional techniques provides higher deposition rates and lower downtime.

MSP provides nine direct liquid injection vaporizer options to meet varying applications. The vaporizers are ideal for process that require a high quality, stable vapor. A few applications include:

  • Semiconductor Microelectronics
  • LEDs Optoelectronics
  • Protective Coatings
  • Nanoparticle Synthesis
  • Energy Production/Storage
  • Powder/Fiber Processing
  • Solar Photovoltaics
  • Medical Device
  • Bio Assays


Unwanted particles can mean low yield and field failure. Best practice is to use a filter downstream of vapor and gas sources for risk mitigation. MSP’s patent-protected VPG™ Vapor Process Gas filters provide ultra-high efficiency in the nanometer size range while also creating minimal pressure drop. These 100% Stainless Steel filters are thermally and chemically resistant.

Liquid Flow Controllers

MSP’s Turbo-Vaporizer™ Vapor Deliver Solutions use a direct liquid injection technique and require precise control of the liquid flow rate entering the vaporizer. A fast response liquid flow controller that can tightly control flow-rates is needed for most microelectronic and thin film applications. Our PE vaporizers use a precision Piezo-valve to control the rate of liquid flow to the vaporizer, significantly reducing dead volume and improving response time. MSP’s versatile Liquid Flow Controller can be used to control the on-board Piezo valve in PE vaporizers. It can be used to maintain a highly stable liquid flow, or generate repeatable short duration vapor pulses for ALD (Atomic Layer Deposition) and short pulse CVD applications.