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Process Particles Suspensions

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Process Particles™ Suspensions are used as particle material standards. They represent real-world contaminant particles encountered in semiconductor device fabrication processing. Deposition of these particles on wafers and reticles enables characterization of the material-dependent response of a surface inspection system when accurate particle size or particle sphericity are of secondary importance. They consist of broad size distributions of irregularly shaped solid particles suspended in ultra-pure water (UPW). Each bottle contains a suspension volume of 100 mL.

Process Particles Suspensions have size distributions that facilitate DMA classification of particle size with minimal generation of multiply-charged particles, thereby enhancing size uniformity. They’re formulated for immediate use in MSP Particle Deposition Systems, although moderate dilution may help minimize multiply-charged particles.

Process Particles are also used for characterization of particle removal efficiency (PRE) by wafer and photomask cleaning systems. For such applications, Process Particles may be deposited using the dry process (electrophoresis) of MSP Particle Deposition Systems, which allows for size classification, or they may be applied with a wet process such as spin coating, without size classification.

Process Particles Suspensions are available in three different nominal size ranges:

  • 40–200 nm (PR1)
  • 200–500 nm (PR2)
  • 500–1000 nm (PR3)

Number size distributions are characterized over these respective size ranges using differential mobility analysis, results of which are provided in a certificate. However, particles smaller and larger than these limits are generally present in each suspension.

Process Particles have a nominal shelf life of six (6) months, but are typically observed to be stable for longer durations. No surfactants or other additives are used, thereby minimizing generation of residue particles.

Features and Benefits

  • Representative of real-world contaminant particles
  • Formulated for immediate use in MSP Particle Deposition Systems
  • Size distributions designed for DMA size classification
  • No additives
  • Easy to use


  • Wafer and reticle (photomask) inspection tool development and qualification
  • Particle removal efficiency (PRE) testing of wafer and photomask cleaning systems

Process Particles are currently available in 13 materials, all of which are available in the PR1 size range. Availability of PR2 and PR3 size ranges are indicated for each material in the following selection chart.

Model Description Material
All NanoSilica model numbers begin with 2250-02    
1032add to cart AL2O3-PR1 40–200 nm 100 mL Aluminum Oxide
1017add to cart AL2O3-PR2 200–500 nm 100 mL Aluminum Oxide
1025add to cart AL2O3-PR3 500–1000 nm 100 mL Aluminum Oxide
1043add to cart ALF3-PR1 40–200 nm 100 mL Aluminum Fluoride
1029add to cart CU-PR1 40–200 nm 100 mL Copper
1031add to cart CU-PR2 200–500 nm 100 mL Copper
1045add to cart NI-PR1 40–200 nm 100 mL Nickel
1005add to cart SI-PR1 40–200 nm 100 mL Silicon
1018add to cart SI-PR2 200–500 nm 100 mL Silicon
1026add to cart SI-PR3 500–1000 nm 100 mL Silicon
1013add to cart SI3N4-PR1 40–200 nm 100 mL Silicon Nitride
1020add to cart SI3N4-PR2 200–500 nm 100 mL Silicon Nitride
1028add to cart SI3N4-PR3 500–1000 nm 100 mL Silicon Nitride
1033add to cart SIO2-PR1 40–200 nm 100 mL Silicon Oxide
1019add to cart SIO2-PR2 200–500 nm 100 mL Silicon Oxide
1027add to cart SIO2-PR3 500–1000 nm 100 mL Silicon Oxide
1030add to cart TA-PR1 40–200 nm 100 mL Tantalum
1014add to cart TI-PR1 40–200 nm 100 mL Tantalum
1021add to cart TI-PR2 200–500 nm 100 mL Titanium
1016add to cart TIN-PR1 40–200 nm 100 mL Titanium Nitride
1023add to cart TIN-PR2 200–500 nm 100 mL Titanium Nitride
1015add to cart TIO2-PR1 40–200 nm 100 mL Titanium Oxide
1022add to cart TIO2-PR2 200–500 nm 100 mL Titanium Oxide
1006add to cart W-PR1 40–200 nm 100 mL Tungsten
1024add to cart W-PR2 200–500 nm 100 mL Tungsten
1046add to cart Y2O3-PR1 40–200 nm 100 mL Yttrium Oxide